Contrails are generally classified into two types. Exhaust contrails and aerodynamic contrails.
The full development can be seen here:
The difference is because a contrail freezes.
So, the difference can be summed up as:
Contrail = Condensation + Freezing + Sublimation
Breath = Condensation + Evaporation
So it’s a real simple bit of maths, height = distance * tan(angle).
|Angle||1/TAN(Angle)||Height||Miles||LOS||Sq Miles||km||Sq Km|
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I’ve programmed a visualization of air traffic that you can interact with in a web browser
Here’s a quick video explaining how to use it:
Feedback, bugs etc appreciated!
There are several variables that you need to account for in explaining these differences:
- The speed of the plane
- The speed of the exhaust
- The temperature of the surrounding air
- The temperature of the exhaust
- The size of the plane.
Causes of Short Contrail Gap
- Low speed plane
- Low power setting (low exhaust speed and cooler exhaust)
- High altitude (colder surrounding air)
Causes of Long Contrail Gap
- High speed plane
- High Power setting (high exhaust speed and hot exhaust)
- Low Altitude (warmer surrounding air)
Altitude and Mirrors
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This news report is from 1980.
It’s based on this research paper:
High altitude planes are very hard to spot on a cloudless sky with no contrails.
I’ll briefly list the reasons, then go into each one in more detail
- Empty Field Myopia – The eye, when looking at a featureless field of vision, will focus just a few feet in front of you, so the planes will be out of focus.
- Saccadic Masking – When your eye moves from one point to another, you don’t see anything while the eye is in motion.
- Small Planes, Big Sky – a plane is about 1/100th to 1/10,000 the size of a contrail, making it proportionally harder to spot.
- Invisible planes – Atmospheric conditions and the color of the planes can make some planes blend in with the sky so well that they are essentially invisible, or very indistinct.
I suggest also looking at a water vapor satellite image.
The scale starts at 400mb, which is around 23,500 feet, and goes to 125mb, or about 48,500 feet.
The page describes how this works, and I repeat it here in full:
Two forms of results are presented.
- Favorable contrail conditions, for a range of pressure levels between 125 and 400 mb, are represented as concentric circles – color coded with reducing diameter for each level. These results can be displayed for engine efficiencies of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4.
- Favorable contrail conditions at each level, represented by ‘X’, along with relative humidity w.r.t ice (RHI). These results are only available for engine efficiencies of 0.3.
[Original Post Dec 7 2010, updated Feb 13th 2011 with German contrail]
Here’s one from Germany:
One very popular photo amongst the “chemtrail” theorists is this one from NASA:
It’s an optical illusion, see:
and another of the media coverage, with links to some more examples of mass bird deaths.